Tuesday, October 13, 2009


History: Where Was R1b1b2 From? When?

R1b1b2 probably appeared during Maykop culture. It was an advanced Neolithic culture of farmers and herders, and one of the very first to develop metalworking, and therefore metal weapons. Stuck between two seas and the Caucasus, they imaginably traded actively around the Black Sea, notably with the other R1b people from northern Anatolia (those that didn't cross the Caucasus and might be the ancestors of the Hittites).

Horse were first domesticated in the neighbouring Yamna culture (modern Ukraine) approximately 3500 BCE, and chariots were invented in the north-eastern steppes around 2000 BCE. Cavalry and chariots played an vital role in the subsequent Indo-European migrations, allowing them to move quickly and defeat easily anybody they encountered. Combined with advanced bronze weapons and their sea-based culture, R1b people are excellent candidates for being the mysterious Sea Peoples, who raided the eastern shores of the Mediterranean during the second millennium BCE.

The European branch
The Indo-Europeans' bronze weapons and horses would have given them a tremendous advantage over the autochthonous inhabitants of Europe, namely the native haplogroup I (descendant of Cro-Magnon), and the early Neolithic herders and farmers (G2a and E-V13). This allowed R1a and R1b to quickly replace (in all likelihood through warfare) most of the native male lineages, although female lineages seem to have been less affected.

R1b1b2 is thought to have arrived in central and western Europe around 2300 BCE, by going up the Danube from the Black Sea coast. This correspond to an archeological vacuum in the old Maykop homeland, so the migration must have been on a massive scale, maybe due to pressure from other (R1a) Indo-European people from the north. There might have been several consecutive waves across the Black Sea to the Danube, but the largest one between 2500 BCE (end of the Maykop culture) and 2300 BCE (beginning of the Unetice culture).

Other waves of (seaborne) R1b1b2 invaders from the Pontic-Caspian homeland are thought to have settled in Anatolia a few centuries later, where they became the Luwians, Lycians and Lydians (1450 BCE). Troy was most probably a colony to secure the trade routes of the Sea Peoples between the Black Sea and the Aegean. The Trojans were Luwian speakers related to the Hittites, with proven cultural ties to the culture of the Pontic-Caspian steppe. The first city of Troy dates back to 3000 BCE, right in the middle of the Maykop period, and exatly at the time the first galleys were made.

Resource: familytreedna: http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml#R1b-subclades
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